Third-Stage COVID-19 Disease Still Needs Remedy

Shimon Shatzmiller

Department of Biological Chemistry, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel

Dr. Shimon Shatzmiller, Department of Biological Chemistry, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progresses in four stages [1]. The first stage is a presymptomatic phase, which may lead to stage 2, which presents with fever, cough, generalized malaise, and a high viral load. This is followed, after seven to ten days, by stage 3, which presents with viral pneumonia. Most patients improve clinically as immunological responses are developed at this stage. However, during stage 3, a small number of patients develop symptoms of hypercytokinemia ("cytokine storm"). Finally, in
stage 4, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure sets in, with a high reported mortality rate [1]. The respiratory symptoms caused by COVID-19 thus stem from inflammation that causes lung injury. This causes a decrease in oxygen saturation. If the inflammation, marked by the "cytokine storm," is not mitigated, it can lead to ARDS [1]; therefore, the aim of therapy should be to abort the "cytokine storm" [2].

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