Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Pathway in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Gina Kim1 & Junsuk Ko2*
1Yongsan International School of Seoul, South Korea
2MD Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore
Dr. Junsuk Ko, MD Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
Keywords: Transforming Growth Factor; Pancreatic Cancer; PDAC; Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a type of pancreatic cancer, is a highly fatal malignant disease with one of the poorest prognoses with rising incidence. The poor clinical outcomes are due to the limitation of the current therapeutic interventions and insufficient understanding of the pathogenesis for PDAC. For optimal treatments for patients with PDAC, the pathogenesis of the disease must be elucidated as the understanding of the mechanism can potentially lead to innovative therapies. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) pathway is a cytokine-mediated signalling pathway that plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, cell proliferation, organ fibrosis, immunosuppression, and tumorigenesis. However, TGF-B pathway’s role in initiation and prognosis of pancreatic cancer has been controversial since there were multiple reports with conflicting results of pro- and anti-cancer. In this review, we aim to summarize the roles of TGF-B in physiology as well as the potential key pathways by which TGF-B1 modulates the progression of PDAC.
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