Key Problems in the Translation of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Cells
Haixia Wang1, Yanhong Gao2 & Jin Gao1*
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University, Spokane, WA 99202, USA
2Shangqiu Municipal First Senior High School, Shangqiu, Henan 476000, RPC
H. Wang and Y. Gao contribute equally to this work.
Dr. Jin Gao, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University, Spokane, WA 99202, USA.
Keywords: Extracellular Vesicles; Nanovesicles; Drug Delivery; Centrifugation; Cell Membrane; Bacteria; Bacterium Membrane
Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs). To meet the requirements of clinical application, the facile EVs were also prepared by various physical, chemical and biological methods to mimic the natural ones. Although some EVs have been at the phases of clinical trials, there are lots of challenges facing the clinical application of EVs. Herein, the most outstanding problems concerning the three stages of commercialization of EVs, including production scalability, quality control and immunotoxicity, were comprehensively discussed. In addition, some strategies toward solving these issues are also proposed.
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